André F. T. Martins

Also published as: Andre Martins, André Martins


2022

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-former: Infinite Memory Transformer
Pedro Henrique Martins | Zita Marinho | Andre Martins
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Transformers are unable to model long-term memories effectively, since the amount of computation they need to perform grows with the context length. While variations of efficient transformers have been proposed, they all have a finite memory capacity and are forced to drop old information. In this paper, we propose the \\infty-former, which extends the vanilla transformer with an unbounded long-term memory. By making use of a continuous-space attention mechanism to attend over the long-term memory, the \\infty-former’s attention complexity becomes independent of the context length, trading off memory length with precision.In order to control where precision is more important, \\infty-former maintains “sticky memories,” being able to model arbitrarily long contexts while keeping the computation budget fixed.Experiments on a synthetic sorting task, language modeling, and document grounded dialogue generation demonstrate the \\infty-former’s ability to retain information from long sequences.

2021

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IST-Unbabel 2021 Submission for the Explainable Quality Estimation Shared TaskIST-Unbabel 2021 Submission for the Explainable Quality Estimation Shared Task
Marcos Treviso | Nuno M. Guerreiro | Ricardo Rei | André F. T. Martins
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Evaluation and Comparison of NLP Systems

We present the joint contribution of Instituto Superior Tcnico (IST) and Unbabel to the Explainable Quality Estimation (QE) shared task, where systems were submitted to two tracks : constrained (without word-level supervision) and unconstrained (with word-level supervision). For the constrained track, we experimented with several explainability methods to extract the relevance of input tokens from sentence-level QE models built on top of multilingual pre-trained transformers. Among the different tested methods, composing explanations in the form of attention weights scaled by the norm of value vectors yielded the best results. When word-level labels are used during training, our best results were obtained by using word-level predicted probabilities. We further improve the performance of our methods on the two tracks by ensembling explanation scores extracted from models trained with different pre-trained transformers, achieving strong results for in-domain and zero-shot language pairs.

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Do Context-Aware Translation Models Pay the Right Attention?
Kayo Yin | Patrick Fernandes | Danish Pruthi | Aditi Chaudhary | André F. T. Martins | Graham Neubig
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Context-aware machine translation models are designed to leverage contextual information, but often fail to do so. As a result, they inaccurately disambiguate pronouns and polysemous words that require context for resolution. In this paper, we ask several questions : What contexts do human translators use to resolve ambiguous words? Are models paying large amounts of attention to the same context? What if we explicitly train them to do so? To answer these questions, we introduce SCAT (Supporting Context for Ambiguous Translations), a new English-French dataset comprising supporting context words for 14 K translations that professional translators found useful for pronoun disambiguation. Using SCAT, we perform an in-depth analysis of the context used to disambiguate, examining positional and lexical characteristics of the supporting words. Furthermore, we measure the degree of alignment between the model’s attention scores and the supporting context from SCAT, and apply a guided attention strategy to encourage agreement between the two.

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Measuring and Increasing Context Usage in Context-Aware Machine Translation
Patrick Fernandes | Kayo Yin | Graham Neubig | André F. T. Martins
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Recent work in neural machine translation has demonstrated both the necessity and feasibility of using inter-sentential context, context from sentences other than those currently being translated. However, while many current methods present model architectures that theoretically can use this extra context, it is often not clear how much they do actually utilize it at translation time. In this paper, we introduce a new metric, conditional cross-mutual information, to quantify usage of context by these models. Using this metric, we measure how much document-level machine translation systems use particular varieties of context. We find that target context is referenced more than source context, and that including more context has a diminishing affect on results. We then introduce a new, simple training method, context-aware word dropout, to increase the usage of context by context-aware models. Experiments show that our method not only increases context usage, but also improves the translation quality according to metrics such as BLEU and COMET, as well as performance on anaphoric pronoun resolution and lexical cohesion contrastive datasets.

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Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Machine Translation
Loic Barrault | Ondrej Bojar | Fethi Bougares | Rajen Chatterjee | Marta R. Costa-jussa | Christian Federmann | Mark Fishel | Alexander Fraser | Markus Freitag | Yvette Graham | Roman Grundkiewicz | Paco Guzman | Barry Haddow | Matthias Huck | Antonio Jimeno Yepes | Philipp Koehn | Tom Kocmi | Andre Martins | Makoto Morishita | Christof Monz
Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Machine Translation

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Findings of the WMT 2021 Shared Task on Quality EstimationWMT 2021 Shared Task on Quality Estimation
Lucia Specia | Frédéric Blain | Marina Fomicheva | Chrysoula Zerva | Zhenhao Li | Vishrav Chaudhary | André F. T. Martins
Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Machine Translation

We report the results of the WMT 2021 shared task on Quality Estimation, where the challenge is to predict the quality of the output of neural machine translation systems at the word and sentence levels. This edition focused on two main novel additions : (i) prediction for unseen languages, i.e. zero-shot settings, and (ii) prediction of sentences with catastrophic errors. In addition, new data was released for a number of languages, especially post-edited data. Participating teams from 19 institutions submitted altogether 1263 systems to different task variants and language pairs.

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IST-Unbabel 2021 Submission for the Quality Estimation Shared TaskIST-Unbabel 2021 Submission for the Quality Estimation Shared Task
Chrysoula Zerva | Daan van Stigt | Ricardo Rei | Ana C Farinha | Pedro Ramos | José G. C. de Souza | Taisiya Glushkova | Miguel Vera | Fabio Kepler | André F. T. Martins
Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Machine Translation

We present the joint contribution of IST and Unbabel to the WMT 2021 Shared Task on Quality Estimation. Our team participated on two tasks : Direct Assessment and Post-Editing Effort, encompassing a total of 35 submissions. For all submissions, our efforts focused on training multilingual models on top of OpenKiwi predictor-estimator architecture, using pre-trained multilingual encoders combined with adapters. We further experiment with and uncertainty-related objectives and features as well as training on out-of-domain direct assessment data.

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Are References Really Needed? Unbabel-IST 2021 Submission for the Metrics Shared TaskIST 2021 Submission for the Metrics Shared Task
Ricardo Rei | Ana C Farinha | Chrysoula Zerva | Daan van Stigt | Craig Stewart | Pedro Ramos | Taisiya Glushkova | André F. T. Martins | Alon Lavie
Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Machine Translation

In this paper, we present the joint contribution of Unbabel and IST to the WMT 2021 Metrics Shared Task. With this year’s focus on Multidimensional Quality Metric (MQM) as the ground-truth human assessment, our aim was to steer COMET towards higher correlations with MQM. We do so by first pre-training on Direct Assessments and then fine-tuning on z-normalized MQM scores. In our experiments we also show that reference-free COMET models are becoming competitive with reference-based models, even outperforming the best COMET model from 2020 on this year’s development data. Additionally, we present COMETinho, a lightweight COMET model that is 19x faster on CPU than the original model, while also achieving state-of-the-art correlations with MQM. Finally, in the QE as a metric track, we also participated with a QE model trained using the OpenKiwi framework leveraging MQM scores and word-level annotations.

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Smoothing and Shrinking the Sparse Seq2Seq Search SpaceSeq2Seq Search Space
Ben Peters | André F. T. Martins
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Current sequence-to-sequence models are trained to minimize cross-entropy and use softmax to compute the locally normalized probabilities over target sequences. While this setup has led to strong results in a variety of tasks, one unsatisfying aspect is its length bias : models give high scores to short, inadequate hypotheses and often make the empty string the argmaxthe so-called cat got your tongue problem. Recently proposed entmax-based sparse sequence-to-sequence models present a possible solution, since they can shrink the search space by assigning zero probability to bad hypotheses, but their ability to handle word-level tasks with transformers has never been tested. In this work, we show that entmax-based models effectively solve the cat got your tongue problem, removing a major source of model error for neural machine translation. In addition, we generalize label smoothing, a critical regularization technique, to the broader family of Fenchel-Young losses, which includes both cross-entropy and the entmax losses. Our resulting label-smoothed entmax loss models set a new state of the art on multilingual grapheme-to-phoneme conversion and deliver improvements and better calibration properties on cross-lingual morphological inflection and machine translation for 7 language pairs.

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Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Structured Prediction for NLP (SPNLP 2021)
Zornitsa Kozareva | Sujith Ravi | Andreas Vlachos | Priyanka Agrawal | André Martins
Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Structured Prediction for NLP (SPNLP 2021)

2020

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Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the European Association for Machine Translation
André Martins | Helena Moniz | Sara Fumega | Bruno Martins | Fernando Batista | Luisa Coheur | Carla Parra | Isabel Trancoso | Marco Turchi | Arianna Bisazza | Joss Moorkens | Ana Guerberof | Mary Nurminen | Lena Marg | Mikel L. Forcada
Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the European Association for Machine Translation

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Understanding the Mechanics of SPIGOT : Surrogate Gradients for Latent Structure LearningSPIGOT: Surrogate Gradients for Latent Structure Learning
Tsvetomila Mihaylova | Vlad Niculae | André F. T. Martins
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Latent structure models are a powerful tool for modeling language data : they can mitigate the error propagation and annotation bottleneck in pipeline systems, while simultaneously uncovering linguistic insights about the data. One challenge with end-to-end training of these models is the argmax operation, which has null gradient. In this paper, we focus on surrogate gradients, a popular strategy to deal with this problem. We explore latent structure learning through the angle of pulling back the downstream learning objective. In this paradigm, we discover a principled motivation for both the straight-through estimator (STE) as well as the recently-proposed SPIGOT a variant of STE for structured models. Our perspective leads to new algorithms in the same family. We empirically compare the known and the novel pulled-back estimators against the popular alternatives, yielding new insight for practitioners and revealing intriguing failure cases.

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Revisiting Higher-Order Dependency Parsers
Erick Fonseca | André F. T. Martins
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Neural encoders have allowed dependency parsers to shift from higher-order structured models to simpler first-order ones, making decoding faster and still achieving better accuracy than non-neural parsers. This has led to a belief that neural encoders can implicitly encode structural constraints, such as siblings and grandparents in a tree. We tested this hypothesis and found that neural parsers may benefit from higher-order features, even when employing a powerful pre-trained encoder, such as BERT. While the gains of higher-order features are small in the presence of a powerful encoder, they are consistent for long-range dependencies and long sentences. In particular, higher-order models are more accurate on full sentence parses and on the exact match of modifier lists, indicating that they deal better with larger, more complex structures.

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Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Structured Prediction for NLP
Priyanka Agrawal | Zornitsa Kozareva | Julia Kreutzer | Gerasimos Lampouras | André Martins | Sujith Ravi | Andreas Vlachos
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Structured Prediction for NLP

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Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Machine Translation
Loïc Barrault | Ondřej Bojar | Fethi Bougares | Rajen Chatterjee | Marta R. Costa-jussà | Christian Federmann | Mark Fishel | Alexander Fraser | Yvette Graham | Paco Guzman | Barry Haddow | Matthias Huck | Antonio Jimeno Yepes | Philipp Koehn | André Martins | Makoto Morishita | Christof Monz | Masaaki Nagata | Toshiaki Nakazawa | Matteo Negri
Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Machine Translation

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IST-Unbabel Participation in the WMT20 Quality Estimation Shared TaskIST-Unbabel Participation in the WMT20 Quality Estimation Shared Task
João Moura | Miguel Vera | Daan van Stigt | Fabio Kepler | André F. T. Martins
Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Machine Translation

We present the joint contribution of IST and Unbabel to the WMT 2020 Shared Task on Quality Estimation. Our team participated on all tracks (Direct Assessment, Post-Editing Effort, Document-Level), encompassing a total of 14 submissions. Our submitted systems were developed by extending the OpenKiwi framework to a transformer-based predictor-estimator architecture, and to cope with glass-box, uncertainty-based features coming from neural machine translation systems.

2019

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Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Structured Prediction for NLP
Andre Martins | Andreas Vlachos | Zornitsa Kozareva | Sujith Ravi | Gerasimos Lampouras | Vlad Niculae | Julia Kreutzer
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Structured Prediction for NLP

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ITIST at the SIGMORPHON 2019 Shared Task : Sparse Two-headed Models for InflectionITIST at the SIGMORPHON 2019 Shared Task: Sparse Two-headed Models for Inflection
Ben Peters | André F. T. Martins
Proceedings of the 16th Workshop on Computational Research in Phonetics, Phonology, and Morphology

This paper presents the Instituto de TelecomunicaesInstituto Superior Tcnico submission to Task 1 of the SIGMORPHON 2019 Shared Task. Our models combine sparse sequence-to-sequence models with a two-headed attention mechanism that learns separate attention distributions for the lemma and inflectional tags. Among submissions to Task 1, our models rank second and third. Despite the low data setting of the task (only 100 in-language training examples), they learn plausible inflection patterns and often concentrate all probability mass into a small set of hypotheses, making beam search exact.

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Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 1: Research Papers)
Ondřej Bojar | Rajen Chatterjee | Christian Federmann | Mark Fishel | Yvette Graham | Barry Haddow | Matthias Huck | Antonio Jimeno Yepes | Philipp Koehn | André Martins | Christof Monz | Matteo Negri | Aurélie Névéol | Mariana Neves | Matt Post | Marco Turchi | Karin Verspoor
Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 1: Research Papers)

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Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 2: Shared Task Papers, Day 1)
Ondřej Bojar | Rajen Chatterjee | Christian Federmann | Mark Fishel | Yvette Graham | Barry Haddow | Matthias Huck | Antonio Jimeno Yepes | Philipp Koehn | André Martins | Christof Monz | Matteo Negri | Aurélie Névéol | Mariana Neves | Matt Post | Marco Turchi | Karin Verspoor
Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 2: Shared Task Papers, Day 1)

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Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 3: Shared Task Papers, Day 2)
Ondřej Bojar | Rajen Chatterjee | Christian Federmann | Mark Fishel | Yvette Graham | Barry Haddow | Matthias Huck | Antonio Jimeno Yepes | Philipp Koehn | André Martins | Christof Monz | Matteo Negri | Aurélie Névéol | Mariana Neves | Matt Post | Marco Turchi | Karin Verspoor
Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 3: Shared Task Papers, Day 2)

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Selective Attention for Context-aware Neural Machine Translation
Sameen Maruf | André F. T. Martins | Gholamreza Haffari
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Despite the progress made in sentence-level NMT, current systems still fall short at achieving fluent, good quality translation for a full document. Recent works in context-aware NMT consider only a few previous sentences as context and may not scale to entire documents. To this end, we propose a novel and scalable top-down approach to hierarchical attention for context-aware NMT which uses sparse attention to selectively focus on relevant sentences in the document context and then attends to key words in those sentences. We also propose single-level attention approaches based on sentence or word-level information in the context. The document-level context representation, produced from these attention modules, is integrated into the encoder or decoder of the Transformer model depending on whether we use monolingual or bilingual context. Our experiments and evaluation on English-German datasets in different document MT settings show that our selective attention approach not only significantly outperforms context-agnostic baselines but also surpasses context-aware baselines in most cases.

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A Simple and Effective Approach to Automatic Post-Editing with Transfer Learning
Gonçalo M. Correia | André F. T. Martins
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Automatic post-editing (APE) seeks to automatically refine the output of a black-box machine translation (MT) system through human post-edits. APE systems are usually trained by complementing human post-edited data with large, artificial data generated through back-translations, a time-consuming process often no easier than training a MT system from scratch. in this paper, we propose an alternative where we fine-tune pre-trained BERT models on both the encoder and decoder of an APE system, exploring several parameter sharing strategies. By only training on a dataset of 23 K sentences for 3 hours on a single GPU we obtain results that are competitive with systems that were trained on 5 M artificial sentences. When we add this artificial data our method obtains state-of-the-art results.

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Joint Learning of Named Entity Recognition and Entity Linking
Pedro Henrique Martins | Zita Marinho | André F. T. Martins
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Research Workshop

Named entity recognition (NER) and entity linking (EL) are two fundamentally related tasks, since in order to perform EL, first the mentions to entities have to be detected. However, most entity linking approaches disregard the mention detection part, assuming that the correct mentions have been previously detected. In this paper, we perform joint learning of NER and EL to leverage their relatedness and obtain a more robust and generalisable system. For that, we introduce a model inspired by the Stack-LSTM approach. We observe that, in fact, doing multi-task learning of NER and EL improves the performance in both tasks when comparing with models trained with individual objectives. Furthermore, we achieve results competitive with the state-of-the-art in both NER and EL.

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Scheduled Sampling for Transformers
Tsvetomila Mihaylova | André F. T. Martins
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Research Workshop

Scheduled sampling is a technique for avoiding one of the known problems in sequence-to-sequence generation : exposure bias. It consists of feeding the model a mix of the teacher forced embeddings and the model predictions from the previous step in training time. The technique has been used for improving model performance with recurrent neural networks (RNN). In the Transformer model, unlike the RNN, the generation of a new word attends to the full sentence generated so far, not only to the last word, and it is not straightforward to apply the scheduled sampling technique. We propose some structural changes to allow scheduled sampling to be applied to Transformer architectures, via a two-pass decoding strategy. Experiments on two language pairs achieve performance close to a teacher-forcing baseline and show that this technique is promising for further exploration.

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OpenKiwi : An Open Source Framework for Quality EstimationOpenKiwi: An Open Source Framework for Quality Estimation
Fabio Kepler | Jonay Trénous | Marcos Treviso | Miguel Vera | André F. T. Martins
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: System Demonstrations

We introduce OpenKiwi, a Pytorch-based open source framework for translation quality estimation. OpenKiwi supports training and testing of word-level and sentence-level quality estimation systems, implementing the winning systems of the WMT 201518 quality estimation campaigns. We benchmark OpenKiwi on two datasets from WMT 2018 (English-German SMT and NMT), yielding state-of-the-art performance on the word-level tasks and near state-of-the-art in the sentence-level tasks.

2018

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Towards Dynamic Computation Graphs via Sparse Latent Structure
Vlad Niculae | André F. T. Martins | Claire Cardie
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Deep NLP models benefit from underlying structures in the datae.g., parse treestypically extracted using off-the-shelf parsers. Recent attempts to jointly learn the latent structure encounter a tradeoff : either make factorization assumptions that limit expressiveness, or sacrifice end-to-end differentiability. Using the recently proposed SparseMAP inference, which retrieves a sparse distribution over latent structures, we propose a novel approach for end-to-end learning of latent structure predictors jointly with a downstream predictor. To the best of our knowledge, our method is the first to enable unrestricted dynamic computation graph construction from the global latent structure, while maintaining differentiability.

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Proceedings of the AMTA 2018 Workshop on Translation Quality Estimation and Automatic Post-Editing
Ramón Astudillo | João Graça | André Martins
Proceedings of the AMTA 2018 Workshop on Translation Quality Estimation and Automatic Post-Editing

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Interpretable Structure Induction via Sparse Attention
Ben Peters | Vlad Niculae | André F. T. Martins
Proceedings of the 2018 EMNLP Workshop BlackboxNLP: Analyzing and Interpreting Neural Networks for NLP

Neural network methods are experiencing wide adoption in NLP, thanks to their empirical performance on many tasks. Modern neural architectures go way beyond simple feedforward and recurrent models : they are complex pipelines that perform soft, differentiable computation instead of discrete logic. The price of such soft computing is the introduction of dense dependencies, which make it hard to disentangle the patterns that trigger a prediction. Our recent work on sparse and structured latent computation presents a promising avenue for enhancing interpretability of such neural pipelines. Through this extended abstract, we aim to discuss and explore the potential and impact of our methods.

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Contextual Neural Model for Translating Bilingual Multi-Speaker Conversations
Sameen Maruf | André F. T. Martins | Gholamreza Haffari
Proceedings of the Third Conference on Machine Translation: Research Papers

Recent works in neural machine translation have begun to explore document translation. However, translating online multi-speaker conversations is still an open problem. In this work, we propose the task of translating Bilingual Multi-Speaker Conversations, and explore neural architectures which exploit both source and target-side conversation histories for this task. To initiate an evaluation for this task, we introduce datasets extracted from Europarl v7 and OpenSubtitles2016. Our experiments on four language-pairs confirm the significance of leveraging conversation history, both in terms of BLEU and manual evaluation.

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Sparse and Constrained Attention for Neural Machine Translation
Chaitanya Malaviya | Pedro Ferreira | André F. T. Martins
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

In neural machine translation, words are sometimes dropped from the source or generated repeatedly in the translation. We explore novel strategies to address the coverage problem that change only the attention transformation. Our approach allocates fertilities to source words, used to bound the attention each word can receive. We experiment with various sparse and constrained attention transformations and propose a new one, constrained sparsemax, shown to be differentiable and sparse. Empirical evaluation is provided in three languages pairs.

2017

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Pushing the Limits of Translation Quality Estimation
André F. T. Martins | Marcin Junczys-Dowmunt | Fabio N. Kepler | Ramón Astudillo | Chris Hokamp | Roman Grundkiewicz
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 5

Translation quality estimation is a task of growing importance in NLP, due to its potential to reduce post-editing human effort in disruptive ways. However, this potential is currently limited by the relatively low accuracy of existing systems. In this paper, we achieve remarkable improvements by exploiting synergies between the related tasks of word-level quality estimation and automatic post-editing. First, we stack a new, carefully engineered, neural model into a rich feature-based word-level quality estimation system. Then, we use the output of an automatic post-editing system as an extra feature, obtaining striking results on WMT16 : a word-level FMULT1 score of 57.47 % (an absolute gain of +7.95 % over the current state of the art), and a Pearson correlation score of 65.56 % for sentence-level HTER prediction (an absolute gain of +13.36 %).

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Learning What’s Easy : Fully Differentiable Neural Easy-First Taggers
André F. T. Martins | Julia Kreutzer
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We introduce a novel neural easy-first decoder that learns to solve sequence tagging tasks in a flexible order. In contrast to previous easy-first decoders, our models are end-to-end differentiable. The decoder iteratively updates a sketch of the predictions over the sequence. At its core is an attention mechanism that controls which parts of the input are strategically the best to process next. We present a new constrained softmax transformation that ensures the same cumulative attention to every word, and show how to efficiently evaluate and backpropagate over it. Our models compare favourably to BILSTM taggers on three sequence tagging tasks.

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Proceedings of the Software Demonstrations of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics
André Martins | Anselmo Peñas
Proceedings of the Software Demonstrations of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

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