Christof Monz


2021

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Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Machine Translation
Loic Barrault | Ondrej Bojar | Fethi Bougares | Rajen Chatterjee | Marta R. Costa-jussa | Christian Federmann | Mark Fishel | Alexander Fraser | Markus Freitag | Yvette Graham | Roman Grundkiewicz | Paco Guzman | Barry Haddow | Matthias Huck | Antonio Jimeno Yepes | Philipp Koehn | Tom Kocmi | Andre Martins | Makoto Morishita | Christof Monz
Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Machine Translation

2020

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Optimizing Transformer for Low-Resource Neural Machine Translation
Ali Araabi | Christof Monz
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Language pairs with limited amounts of parallel data, also known as low-resource languages, remain a challenge for neural machine translation. While the Transformer model has achieved significant improvements for many language pairs and has become the de facto mainstream architecture, its capability under low-resource conditions has not been fully investigated yet. Our experiments on different subsets of the IWSLT14 training data show that the effectiveness of Transformer under low-resource conditions is highly dependent on the hyper-parameter settings. Our experiments show that using an optimized Transformer for low-resource conditions improves the translation quality up to 7.3 BLEU points compared to using the Transformer default settings.

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Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Machine Translation
Loïc Barrault | Ondřej Bojar | Fethi Bougares | Rajen Chatterjee | Marta R. Costa-jussà | Christian Federmann | Mark Fishel | Alexander Fraser | Yvette Graham | Paco Guzman | Barry Haddow | Matthias Huck | Antonio Jimeno Yepes | Philipp Koehn | André Martins | Makoto Morishita | Christof Monz | Masaaki Nagata | Toshiaki Nakazawa | Matteo Negri
Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Machine Translation

2019

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Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 1: Research Papers)
Ondřej Bojar | Rajen Chatterjee | Christian Federmann | Mark Fishel | Yvette Graham | Barry Haddow | Matthias Huck | Antonio Jimeno Yepes | Philipp Koehn | André Martins | Christof Monz | Matteo Negri | Aurélie Névéol | Mariana Neves | Matt Post | Marco Turchi | Karin Verspoor
Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 1: Research Papers)

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Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 2: Shared Task Papers, Day 1)
Ondřej Bojar | Rajen Chatterjee | Christian Federmann | Mark Fishel | Yvette Graham | Barry Haddow | Matthias Huck | Antonio Jimeno Yepes | Philipp Koehn | André Martins | Christof Monz | Matteo Negri | Aurélie Névéol | Mariana Neves | Matt Post | Marco Turchi | Karin Verspoor
Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 2: Shared Task Papers, Day 1)

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Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 3: Shared Task Papers, Day 2)
Ondřej Bojar | Rajen Chatterjee | Christian Federmann | Mark Fishel | Yvette Graham | Barry Haddow | Matthias Huck | Antonio Jimeno Yepes | Philipp Koehn | André Martins | Christof Monz | Matteo Negri | Aurélie Névéol | Mariana Neves | Matt Post | Marco Turchi | Karin Verspoor
Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Machine Translation (Volume 3: Shared Task Papers, Day 2)

2018

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Back-Translation Sampling by Targeting Difficult Words in Neural Machine Translation
Marzieh Fadaee | Christof Monz
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Neural Machine Translation has achieved state-of-the-art performance for several language pairs using a combination of parallel and synthetic data. Synthetic data is often generated by back-translating sentences randomly sampled from monolingual data using a reverse translation model. While back-translation has been shown to be very effective in many cases, it is not entirely clear why. In this work, we explore different aspects of back-translation, and show that words with high prediction loss during training benefit most from the addition of synthetic data. We introduce several variations of sampling strategies targeting difficult-to-predict words using prediction losses and frequencies of words. In addition, we also target the contexts of difficult words and sample sentences that are similar in context. Experimental results for the WMT news translation task show that our method improves translation quality by up to 1.7 and 1.2 Bleu points over back-translation using random sampling for German-English and English-German, respectively.

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Proceedings of the Third Conference on Machine Translation: Research Papers
Ondřej Bojar | Rajen Chatterjee | Christian Federmann | Mark Fishel | Yvette Graham | Barry Haddow | Matthias Huck | Antonio Jimeno Yepes | Philipp Koehn | Christof Monz | Matteo Negri | Aurélie Névéol | Mariana Neves | Matt Post | Lucia Specia | Marco Turchi | Karin Verspoor
Proceedings of the Third Conference on Machine Translation: Research Papers

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Proceedings of the Third Conference on Machine Translation: Shared Task Papers
Ondřej Bojar | Rajen Chatterjee | Christian Federmann | Mark Fishel | Yvette Graham | Barry Haddow | Matthias Huck | Antonio Jimeno Yepes | Philipp Koehn | Christof Monz | Matteo Negri | Aurélie Névéol | Mariana Neves | Matt Post | Lucia Specia | Marco Turchi | Karin Verspoor
Proceedings of the Third Conference on Machine Translation: Shared Task Papers

2017

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What does Attention in Neural Machine Translation Pay Attention to?
Hamidreza Ghader | Christof Monz
Proceedings of the Eighth International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Attention in neural machine translation provides the possibility to encode relevant parts of the source sentence at each translation step. As a result, attention is considered to be an alignment model as well. However, there is no work that specifically studies attention and provides analysis of what is being learned by attention models. Thus, the question still remains that how attention is similar or different from the traditional alignment. In this paper, we provide detailed analysis of attention and compare it to traditional alignment. We answer the question of whether attention is only capable of modelling translational equivalent or it captures more information. We show that attention is different from alignment in some cases and is capturing useful information other than alignments.

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Data Augmentation for Low-Resource Neural Machine Translation
Marzieh Fadaee | Arianna Bisazza | Christof Monz
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

The quality of a Neural Machine Translation system depends substantially on the availability of sizable parallel corpora. For low-resource language pairs this is not the case, resulting in poor translation quality. Inspired by work in computer vision, we propose a novel data augmentation approach that targets low-frequency words by generating new sentence pairs containing rare words in new, synthetically created contexts. Experimental results on simulated low-resource settings show that our method improves translation quality by up to 2.9 BLEU points over the baseline and up to 3.2 BLEU over back-translation.

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Dynamic Data Selection for Neural Machine Translation
Marlies van der Wees | Arianna Bisazza | Christof Monz
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Intelligent selection of training data has proven a successful technique to simultaneously increase training efficiency and translation performance for phrase-based machine translation (PBMT). With the recent increase in popularity of neural machine translation (NMT), we explore in this paper to what extent and how NMT can also benefit from data selection. While state-of-the-art data selection (Axelrod et al., 2011) consistently performs well for PBMT, we show that gains are substantially lower for NMT. Next, we introduce ‘dynamic data selection’ for NMT, a method in which we vary the selected subset of training data between different training epochs. Our experiments show that the best results are achieved when applying a technique we call ‘gradual fine-tuning’, with improvements up to +2.6 BLEU over the original data selection approach and up to +3.1 BLEU over a general baseline.