Mirella Lapata


2021

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Factorising Meaning and Form for Intent-Preserving Paraphrasing
Tom Hosking | Mirella Lapata
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We propose a method for generating paraphrases of English questions that retain the original intent but use a different surface form. Our model combines a careful choice of training objective with a principled information bottleneck, to induce a latent encoding space that disentangles meaning and form. We train an encoder-decoder model to reconstruct a question from a paraphrase with the same meaning and an exemplar with the same surface form, leading to separated encoding spaces. We use a Vector-Quantized Variational Autoencoder to represent the surface form as a set of discrete latent variables, allowing us to use a classifier to select a different surface form at test time. Crucially, our method does not require access to an external source of target exemplars. Extensive experiments and a human evaluation show that we are able to generate paraphrases with a better tradeoff between semantic preservation and syntactic novelty compared to previous methods.

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Meta-Learning for Domain Generalization in Semantic Parsing
Bailin Wang | Mirella Lapata | Ivan Titov
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

The importance of building semantic parsers which can be applied to new domains and generate programs unseen at training has long been acknowledged, and datasets testing out-of-domain performance are becoming increasingly available. However, little or no attention has been devoted to learning algorithms or objectives which promote domain generalization, with virtually all existing approaches relying on standard supervised learning. In this work, we use a meta-learning framework which targets zero-shot domain generalization for semantic parsing. We apply a model-agnostic training algorithm that simulates zero-shot parsing by constructing virtual train and test sets from disjoint domains. The learning objective capitalizes on the intuition that gradient steps that improve source-domain performance should also improve target-domain performance, thus encouraging a parser to generalize to unseen target domains. Experimental results on the (English) Spider and Chinese Spider datasets show that the meta-learning objective significantly boosts the performance of a baseline parser.

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Noisy Self-Knowledge Distillation for Text Summarization
Yang Liu | Sheng Shen | Mirella Lapata
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

In this paper we apply self-knowledge distillation to text summarization which we argue can alleviate problems with maximum-likelihood training on single reference and noisy datasets. Instead of relying on one-hot annotation labels, our student summarization model is trained with guidance from a teacher which generates smoothed labels to help regularize training. Furthermore, to better model uncertainty during training, we introduce multiple noise signals for both teacher and student models. We demonstrate experimentally on three benchmarks that our framework boosts the performance of both pretrained and non-pretrained summarizers achieving state-of-the-art results.

2020

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Unsupervised Opinion Summarization as Copycat-Review Generation
Arthur Bražinskas | Mirella Lapata | Ivan Titov
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Opinion summarization is the task of automatically creating summaries that reflect subjective information expressed in multiple documents, such as product reviews. While the majority of previous work has focused on the extractive setting, i.e., selecting fragments from input reviews to produce a summary, we let the model generate novel sentences and hence produce abstractive summaries. Recent progress in summarization has seen the development of supervised models which rely on large quantities of document-summary pairs. Since such training data is expensive to acquire, we instead consider the unsupervised setting, in other words, we do not use any summaries in training. We define a generative model for a review collection which capitalizes on the intuition that when generating a new review given a set of other reviews of a product, we should be able to control the amount of novelty going into the new review or, equivalently, vary the extent to which it deviates from the input. At test time, when generating summaries, we force the novelty to be minimal, and produce a text reflecting consensus opinions. We capture this intuition by defining a hierarchical variational autoencoder model. Both individual reviews and the products they correspond to are associated with stochastic latent codes, and the review generator (decoder) has direct access to the text of input reviews through the pointer-generator mechanism. Experiments on Amazon and Yelp datasets, show that setting at test time the review’s latent code to its mean, allows the model to produce fluent and coherent summaries reflecting common opinions.

2019

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Movie Plot Analysis via Turning Point Identification
Pinelopi Papalampidi | Frank Keller | Mirella Lapata
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

According to screenwriting theory, turning points (e.g., change of plans, major setback, climax) are crucial narrative moments within a screenplay : they define the plot structure, determine its progression and segment the screenplay into thematic units (e.g., setup, complications, aftermath). We propose the task of turning point identification in movies as a means of analyzing their narrative structure. We argue that turning points and the segmentation they provide can facilitate processing long, complex narratives, such as screenplays, for summarization and question answering. We introduce a dataset consisting of screenplays and plot synopses annotated with turning points and present an end-to-end neural network model that identifies turning points in plot synopses and projects them onto scenes in screenplays. Our model outperforms strong baselines based on state-of-the-art sentence representations and the expected position of turning points.

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Text Summarization with Pretrained Encoders
Yang Liu | Mirella Lapata
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) represents the latest incarnation of pretrained language models which have recently advanced a wide range of natural language processing tasks. In this paper, we showcase how BERT can be usefully applied in text summarization and propose a general framework for both extractive and abstractive models. We introduce a novel document-level encoder based on BERT which is able to express the semantics of a document and obtain representations for its sentences. Our extractive model is built on top of this encoder by stacking several inter-sentence Transformer layers. For abstractive summarization, we propose a new fine-tuning schedule which adopts different optimizers for the encoder and the decoder as a means of alleviating the mismatch between the two (the former is pretrained while the latter is not). We also demonstrate that a two-staged fine-tuning approach can further boost the quality of the generated summaries. Experiments on three datasets show that our model achieves state-of-the-art results across the board in both extractive and abstractive settings.

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Learning Semantic Parsers from Denotations with Latent Structured Alignments and Abstract Programs
Bailin Wang | Ivan Titov | Mirella Lapata
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Semantic parsing aims to map natural language utterances onto machine interpretable meaning representations, aka programs whose execution against a real-world environment produces a denotation. Weakly-supervised semantic parsers are trained on utterance-denotation pairs treating programs as latent. The task is challenging due to the large search space and spuriousness of programs which may execute to the correct answer but do not generalize to unseen examples. Our goal is to instill an inductive bias in the parser to help it distinguish between spurious and correct programs. We capitalize on the intuition that correct programs would likely respect certain structural constraints were they to be aligned to the question (e.g., program fragments are unlikely to align to overlapping text spans) and propose to model alignments as structured latent variables. In order to make the latent-alignment framework tractable, we decompose the parsing task into (1) predicting a partial abstract program and (2) refining it while modeling structured alignments with differential dynamic programming. We obtain state-of-the-art performance on the WikiTableQuestions and WikiSQL datasets. When compared to a standard attention baseline, we observe that the proposed structured-alignment mechanism is highly beneficial.

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University of Edinburgh’s submission to the Document-level Generation and Translation Shared TaskUniversity of Edinburgh’s submission to the Document-level Generation and Translation Shared Task
Ratish Puduppully | Jonathan Mallinson | Mirella Lapata
Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Neural Generation and Translation

The University of Edinburgh participated in all six tracks : NLG, MT, and MT+NLG with both English and German as targeted languages. For the NLG track, we submitted a multilingual system based on the Content Selection and Planning model of Puduppully et al (2019). For the MT track, we submitted Transformer-based Neural Machine Translation models, where out-of-domain parallel data was augmented with in-domain data extracted from monolingual corpora. Our MT+NLG systems disregard the structured input data and instead rely exclusively on the source summaries.

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Syntax-aware Semantic Role Labeling without Parsing
Rui Cai | Mirella Lapata
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 7

In this paper we focus on learning dependency aware representations for semantic role labeling without recourse to an external parser. The backbone of our model is an LSTM-based semantic role labeler jointly trained with two auxiliary tasks : predicting the dependency label of a word and whether there exists an arc linking it to the predicate. The auxiliary tasks provide syntactic information that is specific to semantic role labeling and are learned from training data (dependency annotations) without relying on existing dependency parsers, which can be noisy (e.g., on out-of-domain data or infrequent constructions). Experimental results on the CoNLL-2009 benchmark dataset show that our model outperforms the state of the art in English, and consistently improves performance in other languages, including Chinese, German, and Spanish.

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Single Document Summarization as Tree Induction
Yang Liu | Ivan Titov | Mirella Lapata
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

In this paper, we conceptualize single-document extractive summarization as a tree induction problem. In contrast to previous approaches which have relied on linguistically motivated document representations to generate summaries, our model induces a multi-root dependency tree while predicting the output summary. Each root node in the tree is a summary sentence, and the subtrees attached to it are sentences whose content relates to or explains the summary sentence. We design a new iterative refinement algorithm : it induces the trees through repeatedly refining the structures predicted by previous iterations. We demonstrate experimentally on two benchmark datasets that our summarizer performs competitively against state-of-the-art methods.

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Sentence Centrality Revisited for Unsupervised Summarization
Hao Zheng | Mirella Lapata
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Single document summarization has enjoyed renewed interest in recent years thanks to the popularity of neural network models and the availability of large-scale datasets. In this paper we develop an unsupervised approach arguing that it is unrealistic to expect large-scale and high-quality training data to be available or created for different types of summaries, domains, or languages. We revisit a popular graph-based ranking algorithm and modify how node (aka sentence) centrality is computed in two ways : (a) we employ BERT, a state-of-the-art neural representation learning model to better capture sentential meaning and (b) we build graphs with directed edges arguing that the contribution of any two nodes to their respective centrality is influenced by their relative position in a document. Experimental results on three news summarization datasets representative of different languages and writing styles show that our approach outperforms strong baselines by a wide margin.

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Discourse Representation Parsing for Sentences and Documents
Jiangming Liu | Shay B. Cohen | Mirella Lapata
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

We introduce a novel semantic parsing task based on Discourse Representation Theory (DRT ; Kamp and Reyle 1993). Our model operates over Discourse Representation Tree Structures which we formally define for sentences and documents. We present a general framework for parsing discourse structures of arbitrary length and granularity. We achieve this with a neural model equipped with a supervised hierarchical attention mechanism and a linguistically-motivated copy strategy. Experimental results on sentence- and document-level benchmarks show that our model outperforms competitive baselines by a wide margin.

2018

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Neural Latent Extractive Document Summarization
Xingxing Zhang | Mirella Lapata | Furu Wei | Ming Zhou
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Extractive summarization models need sentence level labels, which are usually created with rule-based methods since most summarization datasets only have document summary pairs. These labels might be suboptimal. We propose a latent variable extractive model, where sentences are viewed as latent variables and sentences with activated variables are used to infer gold summaries. During training, the loss can come directly from gold summaries. Experiments on CNN / Dailymail dataset show our latent extractive model outperforms a strong extractive baseline trained on rule-based labels and also performs competitively with several recent models.

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Sentence Compression for Arbitrary Languages via Multilingual Pivoting
Jonathan Mallinson | Rico Sennrich | Mirella Lapata
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In this paper we advocate the use of bilingual corpora which are abundantly available for training sentence compression models. Our approach borrows much of its machinery from neural machine translation and leverages bilingual pivoting : compressions are obtained by translating a source string into a foreign language and then back-translating it into the source while controlling the translation length. Our model can be trained for any language as long as a bilingual corpus is available and performs arbitrary rewrites without access to compression specific data. We release. Moss, a new parallel Multilingual Compression dataset for English, German, and French which can be used to evaluate compression models across languages and genres.

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Whodunnit? Crime Drama as a Case for Natural Language Understanding
Lea Frermann | Shay B. Cohen | Mirella Lapata
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 6

In this paper we argue that crime drama exemplified in television programs such as CSI : Crime Scene Investigation is an ideal testbed for approximating real-world natural language understanding and the complex inferences associated with it. We propose to treat crime drama as a new inference task, capitalizing on the fact that each episode poses the same basic question (i.e., who committed the crime) and naturally provides the answer when the perpetrator is revealed. We develop a new dataset based on CSI episodes, formalize perpetrator identification as a sequence labeling problem, and develop an LSTM-based model which learns from multi-modal data. Experimental results show that an incremental inference strategy is key to making accurate guesses as well as learning from representations fusing textual, visual, and acoustic input.

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Learning Structured Text Representations
Yang Liu | Mirella Lapata
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 6

In this paper, we focus on learning structure-aware document representations from data without recourse to a discourse parser or additional annotations. Drawing inspiration from recent efforts to empower neural networks with a structural bias (Cheng et al., 2016 ; Kim et al., 2017), we propose a model that can encode a document while automatically inducing rich structural dependencies. Specifically, we embed a differentiable non-projective parsing algorithm into a neural model and use attention mechanisms to incorporate the structural biases. Experimental evaluations across different tasks and datasets show that the proposed model achieves state-of-the-art results on document modeling tasks while inducing intermediate structures which are both interpretable and meaningful.

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Bootstrapping Generators from Noisy Data
Laura Perez-Beltrachini | Mirella Lapata
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long Papers)

A core step in statistical data-to-text generation concerns learning correspondences between structured data representations (e.g., facts in a database) and associated texts. In this paper we aim to bootstrap generators from large scale datasets where the data (e.g., DBPedia facts) and related texts (e.g., Wikipedia abstracts) are loosely aligned. We tackle this challenging task by introducing a special-purpose content selection mechanism. We use multi-instance learning to automatically discover correspondences between data and text pairs and show how these can be used to enhance the content signal while training an encoder-decoder architecture. Experimental results demonstrate that models trained with content-specific objectives improve upon a vanilla encoder-decoder which solely relies on soft attention.

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Ranking Sentences for Extractive Summarization with Reinforcement Learning
Shashi Narayan | Shay B. Cohen | Mirella Lapata
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long Papers)

Single document summarization is the task of producing a shorter version of a document while preserving its principal information content. In this paper we conceptualize extractive summarization as a sentence ranking task and propose a novel training algorithm which globally optimizes the ROUGE evaluation metric through a reinforcement learning objective. We use our algorithm to train a neural summarization model on the CNN and DailyMail datasets and demonstrate experimentally that it outperforms state-of-the-art extractive and abstractive systems when evaluated automatically and by humans.

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Discourse Representation Structure Parsing
Jiangming Liu | Shay B. Cohen | Mirella Lapata
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We introduce an open-domain neural semantic parser which generates formal meaning representations in the style of Discourse Representation Theory (DRT ; Kamp and Reyle 1993). We propose a method which transforms Discourse Representation Structures (DRSs) to trees and develop a structure-aware model which decomposes the decoding process into three stages : basic DRS structure prediction, condition prediction (i.e., predicates and relations), and referent prediction (i.e., variables). Experimental results on the Groningen Meaning Bank (GMB) show that our model outperforms competitive baselines by a wide margin.

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Coarse-to-Fine Decoding for Neural Semantic Parsing
Li Dong | Mirella Lapata
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Semantic parsing aims at mapping natural language utterances into structured meaning representations. In this work, we propose a structure-aware neural architecture which decomposes the semantic parsing process into two stages. Given an input utterance, we first generate a rough sketch of its meaning, where low-level information (such as variable names and arguments) is glossed over. Then, we fill in missing details by taking into account the natural language input and the sketch itself. Experimental results on four datasets characteristic of different domains and meaning representations show that our approach consistently improves performance, achieving competitive results despite the use of relatively simple decoders.

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Confidence Modeling for Neural Semantic Parsing
Li Dong | Chris Quirk | Mirella Lapata
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

In this work we focus on confidence modeling for neural semantic parsers which are built upon sequence-to-sequence models. We outline three major causes of uncertainty, and design various metrics to quantify these factors. These metrics are then used to estimate confidence scores that indicate whether model predictions are likely to be correct. Beyond confidence estimation, we identify which parts of the input contribute to uncertain predictions allowing users to interpret their model, and verify or refine its input. Experimental results show that our confidence model significantly outperforms a widely used method that relies on posterior probability, and improves the quality of interpretation compared to simply relying on attention scores.

2017

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Learning Structured Natural Language Representations for Semantic Parsing
Jianpeng Cheng | Siva Reddy | Vijay Saraswat | Mirella Lapata
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We introduce a neural semantic parser which is interpretable and scalable. Our model converts natural language utterances to intermediate, domain-general natural language representations in the form of predicate-argument structures, which are induced with a transition system and subsequently mapped to target domains. The semantic parser is trained end-to-end using annotated logical forms or their denotations. We achieve the state of the art on SPADES and GRAPHQUESTIONS and obtain competitive results on GEOQUERY and WEBQUESTIONS. The induced predicate-argument structures shed light on the types of representations useful for semantic parsing and how these are different from linguistically motivated ones.

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A Generative Parser with a Discriminative Recognition Algorithm
Jianpeng Cheng | Adam Lopez | Mirella Lapata
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Generative models defining joint distributions over parse trees and sentences are useful for parsing and language modeling, but impose restrictions on the scope of features and are often outperformed by discriminative models. We propose a framework for parsing and language modeling which marries a generative model with a discriminative recognition model in an encoder-decoder setting. We provide interpretations of the framework based on expectation maximization and variational inference, and show that it enables parsing and language modeling within a single implementation. On the English Penn Treen-bank, our framework obtains competitive performance on constituency parsing while matching the state-of-the-art single-model language modeling score.

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Universal Semantic Parsing
Siva Reddy | Oscar Täckström | Slav Petrov | Mark Steedman | Mirella Lapata
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Universal Dependencies (UD) offer a uniform cross-lingual syntactic representation, with the aim of advancing multilingual applications. Recent work shows that semantic parsing can be accomplished by transforming syntactic dependencies to logical forms. However, this work is limited to English, and can not process dependency graphs, which allow handling complex phenomena such as control. In this work, we introduce UDepLambda, a semantic interface for UD, which maps natural language to logical forms in an almost language-independent fashion and can process dependency graphs. We perform experiments on question answering against Freebase and provide German and Spanish translations of the WebQuestions and GraphQuestions datasets to facilitate multilingual evaluation. Results show that UDepLambda outperforms strong baselines across languages and datasets. For English, it achieves a 4.9 F1 point improvement over the state-of-the-art on GraphQuestions.

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Sentence Simplification with Deep Reinforcement Learning
Xingxing Zhang | Mirella Lapata
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Sentence simplification aims to make sentences easier to read and understand. Most recent approaches draw on insights from machine translation to learn simplification rewrites from monolingual corpora of complex and simple sentences. We address the simplification problem with an encoder-decoder model coupled with a deep reinforcement learning framework. Our model, which we call DRESS (as shorthand for Deep REinforcement Sentence Simplification), explores the space of possible simplifications while learning to optimize a reward function that encourages outputs which are simple, fluent, and preserve the meaning of the input. Experiments on three datasets demonstrate that our model outperforms competitive simplification systems.Deep\n REinforcement Sentence Simplification), explores the space of possible\n simplifications while learning to optimize a reward function that\n encourages outputs which are simple, fluent, and preserve the meaning of\n the input. Experiments on three datasets demonstrate that our model\n outperforms competitive simplification systems.\n

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Learning to Paraphrase for Question Answering
Li Dong | Jonathan Mallinson | Siva Reddy | Mirella Lapata
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Question answering (QA) systems are sensitive to the many different ways natural language expresses the same information need. In this paper we turn to paraphrases as a means of capturing this knowledge and present a general framework which learns felicitous paraphrases for various QA tasks. Our method is trained end-to-end using question-answer pairs as a supervision signal. A question and its paraphrases serve as input to a neural scoring model which assigns higher weights to linguistic expressions most likely to yield correct answers. We evaluate our approach on QA over Freebase and answer sentence selection. Experimental results on three datasets show that our framework consistently improves performance, achieving competitive results despite the use of simple QA models.

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Learning Contextually Informed Representations for Linear-Time Discourse Parsing
Yang Liu | Mirella Lapata
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Recent advances in RST discourse parsing have focused on two modeling paradigms : (a) high order parsers which jointly predict the tree structure of the discourse and the relations it encodes ; or (b) linear-time parsers which are efficient but mostly based on local features. In this work, we propose a linear-time parser with a novel way of representing discourse constituents based on neural networks which takes into account global contextual information and is able to capture long-distance dependencies. Experimental results show that our parser obtains state-of-the art performance on benchmark datasets, while being efficient (with time complexity linear in the number of sentences in the document) and requiring minimal feature engineering.

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Image Pivoting for Learning Multilingual Multimodal Representations
Spandana Gella | Rico Sennrich | Frank Keller | Mirella Lapata
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In this paper we propose a model to learn multimodal multilingual representations for matching images and sentences in different languages, with the aim of advancing multilingual versions of image search and image understanding. Our model learns a common representation for images and their descriptions in two different languages (which need not be parallel) by considering the image as a pivot between two languages. We introduce a new pairwise ranking loss function which can handle both symmetric and asymmetric similarity between the two modalities. We evaluate our models on image-description ranking for German and English, and on semantic textual similarity of image descriptions in English. In both cases we achieve state-of-the-art performance.

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Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Volume 1, Long Papers
Mirella Lapata | Phil Blunsom | Alexander Koller
Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Volume 1, Long Papers

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Learning to Generate Product Reviews from Attributes
Li Dong | Shaohan Huang | Furu Wei | Mirella Lapata | Ming Zhou | Ke Xu
Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Volume 1, Long Papers

Automatically generating product reviews is a meaningful, yet not well-studied task in sentiment analysis. Traditional natural language generation methods rely extensively on hand-crafted rules and predefined templates. This paper presents an attention-enhanced attribute-to-sequence model to generate product reviews for given attribute information, such as user, product, and rating. The attribute encoder learns to represent input attributes as vectors. Then, the sequence decoder generates reviews by conditioning its output on these vectors. We also introduce an attention mechanism to jointly generate reviews and align words with input attributes. The proposed model is trained end-to-end to maximize the likelihood of target product reviews given the attributes. We build a publicly available dataset for the review generation task by leveraging the Amazon book reviews and their metadata. Experiments on the dataset show that our approach outperforms baseline methods and the attention mechanism significantly improves the performance of our model.

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Paraphrasing Revisited with Neural Machine Translation
Jonathan Mallinson | Rico Sennrich | Mirella Lapata
Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Volume 1, Long Papers

Recognizing and generating paraphrases is an important component in many natural language processing applications. A well-established technique for automatically extracting paraphrases leverages bilingual corpora to find meaning-equivalent phrases in a single language by pivoting over a shared translation in another language. In this paper we revisit bilingual pivoting in the context of neural machine translation and present a paraphrasing model based purely on neural networks. Our model represents paraphrases in a continuous space, estimates the degree of semantic relatedness between text segments of arbitrary length, and generates candidate paraphrases for any source input. Experimental results across tasks and datasets show that neural paraphrases outperform those obtained with conventional phrase-based pivoting approaches.

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Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Volume 2, Short Papers
Mirella Lapata | Phil Blunsom | Alexander Koller
Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Volume 2, Short Papers