Zhuosheng Zhang


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Tracing Origins: Coreference-aware Machine Reading Comprehension
Zhuosheng Zhang | Hai Zhao
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Machine reading comprehension is a heavily-studied research and test field for evaluating new pre-trained language models (PrLMs) and fine-tuning strategies, and recent studies have enriched the pre-trained language models with syntactic, semantic and other linguistic information to improve the performance of the models. In this paper, we imitate the human reading process in connecting the anaphoric expressions and explicitly leverage the coreference information of the entities to enhance the word embeddings from the pre-trained language model, in order to highlight the coreference mentions of the entities that must be identified for coreference-intensive question answering in QUOREF, a relatively new dataset that is specifically designed to evaluate the coreference-related performance of a model. We use two strategies to fine-tune a pre-trained language model, namely, placing an additional encoder layer after a pre-trained language model to focus on the coreference mentions or constructing a relational graph convolutional network to model the coreference relations. We demonstrate that the explicit incorporation of coreference information in the fine-tuning stage performs better than the incorporation of the coreference information in pre-training a language model.

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Distinguishing Non-natural from Natural Adversarial Samples for More Robust Pre-trained Language Model
Jiayi Wang | Rongzhou Bao | Zhuosheng Zhang | Hai Zhao
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Recently, the problem of robustness of pre-trained language models (PrLMs) has received increasing research interest. Latest studies on adversarial attacks achieve high attack success rates against PrLMs, claiming that PrLMs are not robust. However, we find that the adversarial samples that PrLMs fail are mostly non-natural and do not appear in reality. We question the validity of the current evaluation of robustness of PrLMs based on these non-natural adversarial samples and propose an anomaly detector to evaluate the robustness of PrLMs with more natural adversarial samples. We also investigate two applications of the anomaly detector: (1) In data augmentation, we employ the anomaly detector to force generating augmented data that are distinguished as non-natural, which brings larger gains to the accuracy of PrLMs. (2) We apply the anomaly detector to a defense framework to enhance the robustness of PrLMs. It can be used to defend all types of attacks and achieves higher accuracy on both adversarial samples and compliant samples than other defense frameworks.


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SJTU-NICT at MRP 2019 : Multi-Task Learning for End-to-End Uniform Semantic Graph ParsingSJTU-NICT at MRP 2019: Multi-Task Learning for End-to-End Uniform Semantic Graph Parsing
Zuchao Li | Hai Zhao | Zhuosheng Zhang | Rui Wang | Masao Utiyama | Eiichiro Sumita
Proceedings of the Shared Task on Cross-Framework Meaning Representation Parsing at the 2019 Conference on Natural Language Learning

This paper describes our SJTU-NICT’s system for participating in the shared task on Cross-Framework Meaning Representation Parsing (MRP) at the 2019 Conference for Computational Language Learning (CoNLL). Our system uses a graph-based approach to model a variety of semantic graph parsing tasks. Our main contributions in the submitted system are summarized as follows : 1. Our model is fully end-to-end and is capable of being trained only on the given training set which does not rely on any other extra training source including the companion data provided by the organizer ; 2. We extend our graph pruning algorithm to a variety of semantic graphs, solving the problem of excessive semantic graph search space ; 3. We introduce multi-task learning for multiple objectives within the same framework. The evaluation results show that our system achieved second place in the overall F_1 score and achieved the best F_1 score on the DM framework.F_1 score and achieved the best F_1 score on the DM framework.


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One-shot Learning for Question-Answering in Gaokao History ChallengeGaokao History Challenge
Zhuosheng Zhang | Hai Zhao
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Answering questions from university admission exams (Gaokao in Chinese) is a challenging AI task since it requires effective representation to capture complicated semantic relations between questions and answers. In this work, we propose a hybrid neural model for deep question-answering task from history examinations. Our model employs a cooperative gated neural network to retrieve answers with the assistance of extra labels given by a neural turing machine labeler. Empirical study shows that the labeler works well with only a small training dataset and the gated mechanism is good at fetching the semantic representation of lengthy answers. Experiments on question answering demonstrate the proposed model obtains substantial performance gains over various neural model baselines in terms of multiple evaluation metrics.

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Lingke : a Fine-grained Multi-turn Chatbot for Customer ServiceLingke: a Fine-grained Multi-turn Chatbot for Customer Service
Pengfei Zhu | Zhuosheng Zhang | Jiangtong Li | Yafang Huang | Hai Zhao
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: System Demonstrations

Traditional chatbots usually need a mass of human dialogue data, especially when using supervised machine learning method. Though they can easily deal with single-turn question answering, for multi-turn the performance is usually unsatisfactory. In this paper, we present Lingke, an information retrieval augmented chatbot which is able to answer questions based on given product introduction document and deal with multi-turn conversations. We will introduce a fine-grained pipeline processing to distill responses based on unstructured documents, and attentive sequential context-response matching for multi-turn conversations.

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SJTU-NLP at SemEval-2018 Task 9 : Neural Hypernym Discovery with Term EmbeddingsSJTU-NLP at SemEval-2018 Task 9: Neural Hypernym Discovery with Term Embeddings
Zhuosheng Zhang | Jiangtong Li | Hai Zhao | Bingjie Tang
Proceedings of The 12th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

This paper describes a hypernym discovery system for our participation in the SemEval-2018 Task 9, which aims to discover the best (set of) candidate hypernyms for input concepts or entities, given the search space of a pre-defined vocabulary. We introduce a neural network architecture for the concerned task and empirically study various neural network models to build the representations in latent space for words and phrases. The evaluated models include convolutional neural network, long-short term memory network, gated recurrent unit and recurrent convolutional neural network. We also explore different embedding methods, including word embedding and sense embedding for better performance.

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Joint Learning of POS and Dependencies for Multilingual Universal Dependency ParsingPOS and Dependencies for Multilingual Universal Dependency Parsing
Zuchao Li | Shexia He | Zhuosheng Zhang | Hai Zhao
Proceedings of the CoNLL 2018 Shared Task: Multilingual Parsing from Raw Text to Universal Dependencies

This paper describes the system of team LeisureX in the CoNLL 2018 Shared Task : Multilingual Parsing from Raw Text to Universal Dependencies. Our system predicts the part-of-speech tag and dependency tree jointly. For the basic tasks, including tokenization, lemmatization and morphology prediction, we employ the official baseline model (UDPipe). To train the low-resource languages, we adopt a sampling method based on other richresource languages. Our system achieves a macro-average of 68.31 % LAS F1 score, with an improvement of 2.51 % compared with the UDPipe.

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Moon IME : Neural-based Chinese Pinyin Aided Input Method with Customizable AssociationIME: Neural-based Chinese Pinyin Aided Input Method with Customizable Association
Yafang Huang | Zuchao Li | Zhuosheng Zhang | Hai Zhao
Proceedings of ACL 2018, System Demonstrations

Chinese pinyin input method engine (IME) lets user conveniently input Chinese into a computer by typing pinyin through the common keyboard. In addition to offering high conversion quality, modern pinyin IME is supposed to aid user input with extended association function. However, existing solutions for such functions are roughly based on oversimplified matching algorithms at word-level, whose resulting products provide limited extension associated with user inputs. This work presents the Moon IME, a pinyin IME that integrates the attention-based neural machine translation (NMT) model and Information Retrieval (IR) to offer amusive and customizable association ability. The released IME is implemented on Windows via text services framework.