Linguistic Issues in Language Technology, Volume 18, 2019 - Exploiting Parsed Corpora: Applications in Research, Pedagogy, and Processing

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Building a Chinese AMR Bank with Concept and Relation AlignmentsChinese AMR Bank with Concept and Relation Alignments
Bin Li | Yuan Wen | Li Song | Weiguang Qu | Nianwen Xue

Abstract Meaning Representation (AMR) is a meaning representation framework in which the meaning of a full sentence is represented as a single-rooted, acyclic, directed graph. In this article, we describe an on-going project to build a Chinese AMR (CAMR) corpus, which currently includes 10,149 sentences from the newsgroup and weblog portion of the Chinese TreeBank (CTB). We describe the annotation specifications for the CAMR corpus, which follow the annotation principles of English AMR but make adaptations where needed to accommodate the linguistic facts of Chinese. The CAMR specifications also include a systematic treatment of sentence-internal discourse relations. One significant change we have made to the AMR annotation methodology is the inclusion of the alignment between word tokens in the sentence and the concepts / relations in the CAMR annotation to make it easier for automatic parsers to model the correspondence between a sentence and its meaning representation. We develop an annotation tool for CAMR, and the inter-agreement as measured by the Smatch score between the two annotators is 0.83, indicating reliable annotation. We also present some quantitative analysis of the CAMR corpus. 46.71 % of the AMRs of the sentences are non-tree graphs. Moreover, the AMR of 88.95 % of the sentences has concepts inferred from the context of the sentence but do not correspond to a specific word.

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Probing the nature of an island constraint with a parsed corpus
Yusuke Kubota | Ai Kubota

This paper presents a case study of the use of the NINJAL Parsed Corpus of Modern Japanese (NPCMJ) for syntactic research. NPCMJ is the first phrase structure-based treebank for Japanese that is specifically designed for application in linguistic (in addition to NLP) research. After discussing some basic methodological issues pertaining to the use of treebanks for theoretical linguistics research, we introduce our case study on the status of the Coordinate Structure Constraint (CSC) in Japanese, showing that NPCMJ enables us to easily retrieve examples that support one of the key claims of Kubota and Lee (2015): that the CSC should be viewed as a pragmatic, rather than a syntactic constraint. The corpus-based study we conducted moreover revealed a previously unnoticed tendency that was highly relevant for further clarifying the principles governing the empirical data in question. We conclude the paper by briefly discussing some further methodological issues brought up by our case study pertaining to the relationship between linguistic research and corpus development.