Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Deep Learning Approaches for Low-Resource NLP (DeepLo 2019)

Colin Cherry, Greg Durrett, George Foster, Reza Haffari, Shahram Khadivi, Nanyun Peng, Xiang Ren, Swabha Swayamdipta (Editors)


Anthology ID:
D19-61
Month:
November
Year:
2019
Address:
Hong Kong, China
Venues:
EMNLP | WS
SIG:
Publisher:
Association for Computational Linguistics
URL:
https://aclanthology.org/D19-61
DOI:
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PDF:
https://aclanthology.org/D19-61.pdf

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Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Deep Learning Approaches for Low-Resource NLP (DeepLo 2019)
Colin Cherry | Greg Durrett | George Foster | Reza Haffari | Shahram Khadivi | Nanyun Peng | Xiang Ren | Swabha Swayamdipta

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A Comparative Analysis of Unsupervised Language Adaptation Methods
Gil Rocha | Henrique Lopes Cardoso

To overcome the lack of annotated resources in less-resourced languages, recent approaches have been proposed to perform unsupervised language adaptation. In this paper, we explore three recent proposals : Adversarial Training, Sentence Encoder Alignment and Shared-Private Architecture. We highlight the differences of these approaches in terms of unlabeled data requirements and capability to overcome additional domain shift in the data. A comparative analysis in two different tasks is conducted, namely on Sentiment Classification and Natural Language Inference. We show that adversarial training methods are more suitable when the source and target language datasets contain other variations in content besides the language shift. Otherwise, sentence encoder alignment methods are very effective and can yield scores on the target language that are close to the source language scores.

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A logical-based corpus for cross-lingual evaluation
Felipe Salvatore | Marcelo Finger | Roberto Hirata Jr

At present, different deep learning models are presenting high accuracy on popular inference datasets such as SNLI, MNLI, and SciTail. However, there are different indicators that those datasets can be exploited by using some simple linguistic patterns. This fact poses difficulties to our understanding of the actual capacity of machine learning models to solve the complex task of textual inference. We propose a new set of syntactic tasks focused on contradiction detection that require specific capacities over linguistic logical forms such as : Boolean coordination, quantifiers, definite description, and counting operators. We evaluate two kinds of deep learning models that implicitly exploit language structure : recurrent models and the Transformer network BERT. We show that although BERT is clearly more efficient to generalize over most logical forms, there is space for improvement when dealing with counting operators. Since the syntactic tasks can be implemented in different languages, we show a successful case of cross-lingual transfer learning between English and Portuguese.

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Bag-of-Words Transfer : Non-Contextual Techniques for Multi-Task Learning
Seth Ebner | Felicity Wang | Benjamin Van Durme

Many architectures for multi-task learning (MTL) have been proposed to take advantage of transfer among tasks, often involving complex models and training procedures. In this paper, we ask if the sentence-level representations learned in previous approaches provide significant benefit beyond that provided by simply improving word-based representations. To investigate this question, we consider three techniques that ignore sequence information : a syntactically-oblivious pooling encoder, pre-trained non-contextual word embeddings, and unigram generative regularization. Compared to a state-of-the-art MTL approach to textual inference, the simple techniques we use yield similar performance on a universe of task combinations while reducing training time and model size.

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Deep Bidirectional Transformers for Relation Extraction without Supervision
Yannis Papanikolaou | Ian Roberts | Andrea Pierleoni

We present a novel framework to deal with relation extraction tasks in cases where there is complete lack of supervision, either in the form of gold annotations, or relations from a knowledge base. Our approach leverages syntactic parsing and pre-trained word embeddings to extract few but precise relations, which are then used to annotate a larger corpus, in a manner identical to distant supervision. The resulting data set is employed to fine tune a pre-trained BERT model in order to perform relation extraction. Empirical evaluation on four data sets from the biomedical domain shows that our method significantly outperforms two simple baselines for unsupervised relation extraction and, even if not using any supervision at all, achieves slightly worse results than the state-of-the-art in three out of four data sets. Importantly, we show that it is possible to successfully fine tune a large pretrained language model with noisy data, as opposed to previous works that rely on gold data for fine tuning.

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Fast Domain Adaptation of Semantic Parsers via Paraphrase Attention
Avik Ray | Yilin Shen | Hongxia Jin

Semantic parsers are used to convert user’s natural language commands to executable logical form in intelligent personal agents. Labeled datasets required to train such parsers are expensive to collect, and are never comprehensive. As a result, for effective post-deployment domain adaptation and personalization, semantic parsers are continuously retrained to learn new user vocabulary and paraphrase variety. However, state-of-the art attention based neural parsers are slow to retrain which inhibits real time domain adaptation. Secondly, these parsers do not leverage numerous paraphrases already present in the training dataset. Designing parsers which can simultaneously maintain high accuracy and fast retraining time is challenging. In this paper, we present novel paraphrase attention based sequence-to-sequence / tree parsers which support fast near real time retraining. In addition, our parsers often boost accuracy by jointly modeling the semantic dependencies of paraphrases. We evaluate our model on benchmark datasets to demonstrate upto 9X speedup in retraining time compared to existing parsers, as well as achieving state-of-the-art accuracy.

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Few-Shot and Zero-Shot Learning for Historical Text Normalization
Marcel Bollmann | Natalia Korchagina | Anders Søgaard

Historical text normalization often relies on small training datasets. Recent work has shown that multi-task learning can lead to significant improvements by exploiting synergies with related datasets, but there has been no systematic study of different multi-task learning architectures. This paper evaluates 63 multi-task learning configurations for sequence-to-sequence-based historical text normalization across ten datasets from eight languages, using autoencoding, grapheme-to-phoneme mapping, and lemmatization as auxiliary tasks. We observe consistent, significant improvements across languages when training data for the target task is limited, but minimal or no improvements when training data is abundant. We also show that zero-shot learning outperforms the simple, but relatively strong, identity baseline.

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Unlearn Dataset Bias in Natural Language Inference by Fitting the Residual
He He | Sheng Zha | Haohan Wang

Statistical natural language inference (NLI) models are susceptible to learning dataset bias : superficial cues that happen to associate with the label on a particular dataset, but are not useful in general, e.g., negation words indicate contradiction. As exposed by several recent challenge datasets, these models perform poorly when such association is absent, e.g., predicting that I love dogs. contradicts I do n’t love cats.. Our goal is to design learning algorithms that guard against known dataset bias. We formalize the concept of dataset bias under the framework of distribution shift and present a simple debiasing algorithm based on residual fitting, which we call DRiFt. We first learn a biased model that only uses features that are known to relate to dataset bias. Then, we train a debiased model that fits to the residual of the biased model, focusing on examples that can not be predicted well by biased features only. We use DRiFt to train three high-performing NLI models on two benchmark datasets, SNLI and MNLI. Our debiased models achieve significant gains over baseline models on two challenge test sets, while maintaining reasonable performance on the original test sets.

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Metric Learning for Dynamic Text Classification
Jeremy Wohlwend | Ethan R. Elenberg | Sam Altschul | Shawn Henry | Tao Lei

Traditional text classifiers are limited to predicting over a fixed set of labels. However, in many real-world applications the label set is frequently changing. For example, in intent classification, new intents may be added over time while others are removed. We propose to address the problem of dynamic text classification by replacing the traditional, fixed-size output layer with a learned, semantically meaningful metric space. Here the distances between textual inputs are optimized to perform nearest-neighbor classification across overlapping label sets. Changing the label set does not involve removing parameters, but rather simply adding or removing support points in the metric space. Then the learned metric can be fine-tuned with only a few additional training examples. We demonstrate that this simple strategy is robust to changes in the label space. Furthermore, our results show that learning a non-Euclidean metric can improve performance in the low data regime, suggesting that further work on metric spaces may benefit low-resource research.

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Cross-lingual Parsing with Polyglot Training and Multi-treebank Learning : A Faroese Case StudyFaroese Case Study
James Barry | Joachim Wagner | Jennifer Foster

Cross-lingual dependency parsing involves transferring syntactic knowledge from one language to another. It is a crucial component for inducing dependency parsers in low-resource scenarios where no training data for a language exists. Using Faroese as the target language, we compare two approaches using annotation projection : first, projecting from multiple monolingual source models ; second, projecting from a single polyglot model which is trained on the combination of all source languages. Furthermore, we reproduce multi-source projection (Tyers et al., 2018), in which dependency trees of multiple sources are combined. Finally, we apply multi-treebank modelling to the projected treebanks, in addition to or alternatively to polyglot modelling on the source side. We find that polyglot training on the source languages produces an overall trend of better results on the target language but the single best result for the target language is obtained by projecting from monolingual source parsing models and then training multi-treebank POS tagging and parsing models on the target side.

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Inject Rubrics into Short Answer Grading System
Tianqi Wang | Naoya Inoue | Hiroki Ouchi | Tomoya Mizumoto | Kentaro Inui

Short Answer Grading (SAG) is a task of scoring students’ answers in examinations. Most existing SAG systems predict scores based only on the answers, including the model used as base line in this paper, which gives the-state-of-the-art performance. But they ignore important evaluation criteria such as rubrics, which play a crucial role for evaluating answers in real-world situations. In this paper, we present a method to inject information from rubrics into SAG systems. We implement our approach on top of word-level attention mechanism to introduce the rubric information, in order to locate information in each answer that are highly related to the score. Our experimental results demonstrate that injecting rubric information effectively contributes to the performance improvement and that our proposed model outperforms the state-of-the-art SAG model on the widely used ASAP-SAS dataset under low-resource settings.

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Reevaluating Argument Component Extraction in Low Resource Settings
Anirudh Joshi | Timothy Baldwin | Richard Sinnott | Cecile Paris

Argument component extraction is a challenging and complex high-level semantic extraction task. As such, it is both expensive to annotate (meaning training data is limited and low-resource by nature), and hard for current-generation deep learning methods to model. In this paper, we reevaluate the performance of state-of-the-art approaches in both single- and multi-task learning settings using combinations of character-level, GloVe, ELMo, and BERT encodings using standard BiLSTM-CRF encoders. We use evaluation metrics that are more consistent with evaluation practice in named entity recognition to understand how well current baselines address this challenge and compare their performance to lower-level semantic tasks such as CoNLL named entity recognition. We find that performance utilizing various pre-trained representations and training methodologies often leaves a lot to be desired as it currently stands, and suggest future pathways for improvement.

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Transductive Auxiliary Task Self-Training for Neural Multi-Task Models
Johannes Bjerva | Katharina Kann | Isabelle Augenstein

Multi-task learning and self-training are two common ways to improve a machine learning model’s performance in settings with limited training data. Drawing heavily on ideas from those two approaches, we suggest transductive auxiliary task self-training : training a multi-task model on (i) a combination of main and auxiliary task training data, and (ii) test instances with auxiliary task labels which a single-task version of the model has previously generated. We perform extensive experiments on 86 combinations of languages and tasks. Our results are that, on average, transductive auxiliary task self-training improves absolute accuracy by up to 9.56 % over the pure multi-task model for dependency relation tagging and by up to 13.03 % for semantic tagging.

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Weakly Supervised Attentional Model for Low Resource Ad-hoc Cross-lingual Information Retrieval
Lingjun Zhao | Rabih Zbib | Zhuolin Jiang | Damianos Karakos | Zhongqiang Huang

We propose a weakly supervised neural model for Ad-hoc Cross-lingual Information Retrieval (CLIR) from low-resource languages. Low resource languages often lack relevance annotations for CLIR, and when available the training data usually has limited coverage for possible queries. In this paper, we design a model which does not require relevance annotations, instead it is trained on samples extracted from translation corpora as weak supervision. This model relies on an attention mechanism to learn spans in the foreign sentence that are relevant to the query. We report experiments on two low resource languages : Swahili and Tagalog, trained on less that 100k parallel sentences each. The proposed model achieves 19 MAP points improvement compared to using CNNs for feature extraction, 12 points improvement from machine translation-based CLIR, and up to 6 points improvement compared to probabilistic CLIR models.

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X-WikiRE : A Large, Multilingual Resource for Relation Extraction as Machine ComprehensionX-WikiRE: A Large, Multilingual Resource for Relation Extraction as Machine Comprehension
Mostafa Abdou | Cezar Sas | Rahul Aralikatte | Isabelle Augenstein | Anders Søgaard

Although the vast majority of knowledge bases (KBs) are heavily biased towards English, Wikipedias do cover very different topics in different languages. Exploiting this, we introduce a new multilingual dataset (X-WikiRE), framing relation extraction as a multilingual machine reading problem. We show that by leveraging this resource it is possible to robustly transfer models cross-lingually and that multilingual support significantly improves (zero-shot) relation extraction, enabling the population of low-resourced KBs from their well-populated counterparts.

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Zero-shot Dependency Parsing with Pre-trained Multilingual Sentence Representations
Ke Tran | Arianna Bisazza

We investigate whether off-the-shelf deep bidirectional sentence representations (Devlin et al., 2019) trained on a massively multilingual corpus (multilingual BERT) enable the development of an unsupervised universal dependency parser. This approach only leverages a mix of monolingual corpora in many languages and does not require any translation data making it applicable to low-resource languages. In our experiments we outperform the best CoNLL 2018 language-specific systems in all of the shared task’s six truly low-resource languages while using a single system. However, we also find that (i) parsing accuracy still varies dramatically when changing the training languages and (ii) in some target languages zero-shot transfer fails under all tested conditions, raising concerns on the ‘universality’ of the whole approach.